While new fitness trends are popping up regularly, hip thrusts are one exercise that has carved out a place for itself in lower body training days across a broad spectrum of fitness levels. Hip thrusts appeal to both seasoned lifters and fitness enthusiasts for their effectiveness in strengthening the glutes. Their apparent simplicity also attracts fitness crowds: you sit on the ground, lean back against a bench, lift your hips, and lower them back down. However, despite their straightforward appearance, there are many nuances that even experienced lifters can benefit from understanding, including proper technique, modifications, and common pitfalls to avoid.


What Are Hip Thrusts and Why Are They Challenging?


In a hip thrust, you sit on the ground with your upper back against a bench and your knees bent, then raise your hips to create a bridge and lower back down. As the starting position is from the ground, your muscles begin from a relaxed state and need to be activated from scratch to generate the force required for the lift. In contrast, exercises like squats involve lowering your body to stretch and tense your muscles which helps them contract effectively and propel you upward.


How to Perform a Hip Thrust


Before starting hip thrusts, you need to warm up properly to prepare your muscles and prevent injury. Start with dynamic stretches such as leg swings and walking lunges which help increase circulation in your legs and hips and make your muscles more flexible. Follow this with some light glute bridges that activate the glutes, the primary muscles you will engage during hip thrusts. Finish with bodyweight squats, performed without weights, which engage your thighs and core to ensure the necessary stability and support for hip thrusts. For all these exercises, aim to complete 10-15 repetitions.


After properly warming up, you are set to start the hip thrust. First, position your shoulder blades against a bench or a similar raised surface, with your elbows there to maintain stability. Plant your feet flat on the floor, keeping them shoulder-wide apart. Begin the movement by tucking your chin slightly and pressing through your heels to drive your hips upward. Continue until your thighs are parallel to the floor and your legs create a right angle at the knees. Tighten your glutes and lower back to your starting position.


After completing the hip thrusts, cool down with exercises that relax your muscles and aid in recovery. Start with gentle stretches for your hips, glutes, and thighs to release muscle tension. Hold each stretch for 20-30 seconds. Continue with foam rolling to massage and loosen the muscles worked and prevent soreness. Then, conclude your cooldown routine with deep breathing exercises to reduce your heart rate and relax your entire body.


Hip Thrust Variations


Hip thrusts come in several challenging variations designed to enhance muscle engagement. These include the single-leg, b-stance, frog pump, and hip thrusts with a stability ball, each adding a unique twist to the standard exercise.


Single-Leg Hip Thrust


This variation starts as the standard hip thrusts: you sit on the ground and lean your shoulder blades against a bench for support. Your knees are bent at a 45-degree angle, your feet are slightly wider than your hips, and your hands are placed flat on the abdomen. You lift your right leg upward until the knee forms a straight line with your right hip and then bring your hip down to the floor.


Here, by lifting one leg, you intensify the workout for your gluteal and core muscles, as they work harder to keep you balanced and stable.

B-Stance Hip Thrust


The B-stance hip thrust begins similarly, with your shoulder blades against a bench and your knees bent. However, with this variation you position one foot slightly to the rear of the other. You raise your hips until your body forms a straight line from your shoulders to your knees, which marks the peak of the exercise. Pause briefly at this top position to maximize muscle engagement, then lower your hips back to the starting point.


This setup is akin to the single-leg hip thrust in that it emphasizes one leg more heavily but it differs because the back leg offers additional support. This makes it an ideal choice if you are transitioning towards the full single-leg variation. Additionally, it is effective for addressing muscle imbalances: by positioning the leg with weaker muscles in front, it bears the brunt of the exercise which helps strengthen the muscles.

Frog Pump Hip Thrust


In the frog pump variation, you position yourself as in the previous variations, with the bench supporting your shoulders and your knees slightly bent. Keep your hands on your stomach for balance. Turn both feet outward so that the soles meet and only the outer edges are in contact with the floor. Lift your hips upward and aim to align your body in a horizontal line, from shoulders to knees, at the top of the exercise. Then bring your hips back to the floor to return to the original position.


This variation of the hip thrust is also challenging because the outward rotation of the feet shifts the load to the stabilizing muscles of the hips and inner thighs. As a result, they must work harder to maintain balance and control throughout the movement.

Hip Thrusts with a Stability Ball


To perform this variation, sit on the floor with your back supported by a stability ball. Your knees should be bent at a 45-degree angle, and your feet should be spread slightly wider than hip-distance. Place your hands on your stomach. Then lift your hips until your knees are directly over your heels, each knee bent to form a right angle. Return your hips to the floor to resume the original position.


This variation, with the instability of the ball, makes the exercise more challenging and demands greater core engagement to stabilize your body throughout the movement.

Adding Weights to Hip Thrusts


Once you can comfortably perform hip thrusts without additional resistance, you can start adding weights to increase the challenge and effectiveness of the exercise. However, before you progress to weights, ensure you have consistently completed at least three sets of 10-15 repetitions without any discomfort.


Begin with lighter weights such as dumbbells or weight plates. Place them directly on your pelvic area and use your hands or a weight belt to keep them stable throughout the movement. As your strength increases, you can progress to heavier weights such as barbells which offer significant resistance. When using a barbell, start with small increments, such as adding 5 or 10 pounds at a time, to ensure safety and gradually adjust to the increased load.


Even if you are adding small increments, there are several factors that can influence how much additional weight you can start with. Your body weight, for example, plays a role. Lighter persons should begin with lighter weights such as 5-10 pounds to avoid undue stress on their muscles and joints. Those with higher body weight might handle slightly more, around 10-20 pounds.


Taller and shorter persons should also consider the mechanics of their body when adding weights. Due to their longer limbs, taller people have to lift the weight higher which makes their muscles work harder. This increased workload is why they should start with lighter weights (5-10 pounds) to reduce the risk of injury. Conversely, for shorter persons, the shorter limb length means the weight travels a lesser distance which makes it easier to handle heavier initial weights, like 10-20 pounds.


The anatomy of the hips can also impact how much weight should be added. When people have narrower hips, the weight is concentrated over a smaller area which can increase the intensity of the effort required by the muscles to lift it. Therefore, people with narrower hips should start with lighter weights to ensure they do not place excessive strain on their muscles and joints. In contrast, in persons with wider hips, the weight is distributed over a larger area, which makes it easier for the muscles to lift. As a result, the initial weights can be in the heavier range.


Lastly, arm length also affects starting weight. Persons with shorter arms have a reduced reach and may find it more challenging to secure a stable grip on the barbell. This makes it harder to control the barbell’s position and can lead to balance issues. Because of this, persons with shorter arms should start with lighter weights. In contrast, persons with longer arms have a greater reach which allows them to better control the barbell’s position. This improved stability makes it easier to manage heavier weights from the start.


Muscles Engaged


Hip thrusts primarily target the glutes as they work to elevate the hips against resistance, typically provided by a barbell, weighted plates, or a dumbbell. The hamstrings also play a supporting role by contracting to assist in lifting while the quadriceps stabilize the front of the thigh. Additionally, the core muscles, including the lower back and abdominals, engage to maintain stability and proper alignment of the spine throughout the exercise.


Benefits of Hip Thrusts


Beyond muscle maintenance, hip thrusts offer numerous benefits such as enhanced cardiovascular health, improved respiratory efficiency, and increased bone density.


One key advantage is the cardiovascular workout hip thrusts provide. This exercise engages large muscle groups, and as they work hard during the lifting and lowering phases, the heart pumps blood more vigorously to supply more oxygen to these working muscles. This extra effort from the heart strengthens its muscle over time.


Furthermore, hip thrusts help improve respiratory efficiency. As the muscles’ demand for oxygen increases, the lungs respond by increasing the rate and depth of breathing. Over time, this can lead to enhanced lung capacity and more efficient oxygen uptake.


Lastly, hip thrusts increase bone density as the weight placed across the hips creates micro-stresses on the pelvic region and lower spine. In response to these stresses, the body produces osteoblasts which lay down new bone material at the stressed sites, including calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. This new tissue strengthens the bones and helps reduce the risk of osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and bone stress injuries.


Common Mistakes to Avoid


When performing hip thrusts, there are some common mistakes to be aware of which can undermine the exercise and increase injury risk. Some of the main pitfalls include arching the back, overly elevated hips, and poorly positioned feet.


Arching the Back


A common mistake in hip thrusts is arching the back which can lead to a cascade of related issues. Specifically, arching the back makes the lower back muscles overstretch which causes the glutes and hamstrings to become elongated. This condition makes them struggle to contract efficiently and reduces their effectiveness in generating force to lift the load. The body then compensates by activating the lower back muscles but these are not designed to handle heavy loads, which can lead to an increased risk of lower back pain or injury.


The correct posture for this exercise is maintaining a neutral spine. This allows the lower back muscles to retain their natural length and in turn, the glutes and hamstrings maintain optimal length. They can then contract efficiently and lift the load without forcing the lower back muscles to compensate.


Raising the Hips Too High


Another common mistake is thrusting the hips too high which creates a series of complications. When the hips are thrust excessively upward, it often leads to hyperextension of the lower back. This causes the pelvis to tilt forward which in turn stretches the gluteal muscles and prevents them from contracting effectively. As a result, the lower back muscles must take over the primary role of lifting the load, a function for which they are not designed. This increases the risk of spinal injuries, particularly with repetitive strain or heavier weights.


Proper technique helps prevent such issues during hip thrusts. It involves lifting the hips just enough to form a straight line from the knees to the shoulders at the peak of the movement. This ensures that the glutes remain the primary muscles in action.


Improper Foot Placement


The improper placement of the feet is yet another common mistake, either too close or too far from the hips or excessively wide.


Too Close or Too Far


When you place your feet too close to your hips, the initial steep angle reduces the extent to which the hips can extend upwards. Without achieving full extension, necessary for the glutes to contract, they do not work as intensely as they could. Consequently, the quadriceps compensate by taking on a greater portion of the workload during the exercise. Thus shift increases the risk of overloading the quadriceps and can lead to muscle imbalance or strain.


Conversely, when your feet are positioned too far from your hips during a hip thrust, it causes your hips to sink lower. This position increases the distance between where the glutes attach at the pelvis and where they connect at the thighs. As a result of this extended distance, the glutes become overstretched and cannot contract effectively. Consequently, other muscles like the hamstrings and lower back are forced to compensate for the lift which can lead to strain and less effective training of the glute muscles.


For effective engagement during a hip thrust, you should position your feet so that as your hips are raised, your shins and thighs form a 90-degree angle. This position neither overextends the glutes nor limits their range of motion and enables them to contract powerfully throughout the exercise.


Too Wide


Setting the feet too wide causes the hips to move diagonally which engages muscles used for lateral stabilization such as the abductors and inner thigh muscles. Since the glutes primarily activate when they move vertically, this diagonal motion reduces their involvement and leads to less effective training of these muscles.


Therefore, the correct placement of the feet is shoulder-width apart, not wider, to enable the glute muscles to move vertically and contract powerfully.

Safety Tips


Ensuring safety is key to preventing injuries while achieving your fitness goals. To promote a safe workout environment, maintain a steady tempo, wear supportive gear and watch for any signs of fatigue and pain.


One important aspect of this is a controlled tempo as it helps avoid jerky motions that can strain your spine and joints. During the lifting phase, this tempo should be one to two seconds while in the lowering phase, you should extend it to two to three seconds to ensure a gradual return to the starting position.


Alongside practicing a controlled tempo, consider wearing supportive gear to enhance safety, including compression clothing, sturdy footwear, yoga or exercise mat, and a barbell pad.


Compression clothing, a key element of this gear lineup, is designed to fit snugly against the body and apply gentle pressure to the blood vessels. This pressure encourages blood to flow more effectively throughout the body and deliver oxygen and nutrients like glucose and amino acids to the muscles. This enhanced delivery boosts energy production within the muscles which improves their performance.


Sturdy footwear such as training or weightlifting shoes is another key component to increasing safety during hip thrusts. These shoes offer a flat surface that distributes weight evenly so that all parts of the foot bear equal pressure and remain stable. This helps you maintain a solid, grounded posture and prevents shifts that could lead to misalignment or slipping.


Additionally, a yoga or exercise mat under your shoulders adds cushioning. This minimizes direct pressure on the shoulders and protects them from stain and discomfort. Moreover, the mat can help keep your body in place which prevents slipping and ensures a stable and secure position throughout your workout.


Similarly, using a barbell pad when performing hip thrusts with weights adds a layer of protection. This accessory is designed as a dense foam padding that wraps securely around the barbell and provides a soft cushion on your hips that reduces the risk of discomfort and bruising.


Furthermore, a barbell pad adds extra width which increases the surface area in contact with the hips and helps distribute the weight more evenly. With the weight spread out, the barbell remains more stable on the hips which prevents it from rolling or shifting side-to-side. This stability helps maintain alignment and proper form and reduces the risk of injury.


In addition to using proper gear, you need to monitor for any signs of fatigue such as diminished coordination, shaking muscles, shortness of breath, and a noticeable drop in lifting speed. When these signs appear, indicating that your muscles are reaching their limit, you need to adjust your intensity or take a break to prevent overtraining and injuries.


Also, be alert about the types of pain you experience during workouts. Sharp, stabbing pain or persistent ache that worsens with activity should be taken seriously, as these may indicate joint issues or muscle strains. Similarly, watch for localized pain that doesn’t dissipate with rest or occurs directly at a joint or muscle attachment, which could suggest tendonitis or a ligament problem. If the pain persists or worsens, contact a physical therapist, sports medicine specialist, or orthopedic doctor to determine the exact cause and receive appropriate treatment.


Adequate Recovery


Effective recovery ensures that the targeted muscles, the glutes and hamstrings, repair and strengthen optimally. This process is supported by rest, hydration, and nutrition, each contributing to a smoother and faster recuperation. Additionally, attending events such as wellness workshops, yoga retreats, and meditation sessions promotes relaxation and contributes to muscle recovery.




The rest period needed after hip thrusts depends on the exercise’s intensity. After a light session, muscles typically require a 24-hour rest period. During this interval, satellite cells, which specialize in muscle repair, activate at the sites of microtears. These cells fuse with the damaged muscle fibers to restore their integrity and prepare the muscles for subsequent activities.


Following a heavier session, the muscles require a longer recovery period of 48 to 72 hours. During this time, the body not only repairs muscle fibers but synthesizes new proteins to replace protein molecules damaged by the intense exercise.




Proper hydration is essential for recovery for two main reasons. First, it helps the blood to maintain its optimal volume which ensures efficient flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the muscles. Second, when muscles themselves are hydrated, their cells are better able to absorb these essential nutrients. Both efficient delivery to muscles and enhanced absorption within the cells ensure a steady supply of nutrients needed for muscle repair.




After an exercise session, it is optimal to eat a post-workout meal within 45 minutes to 1 hour. During this period, the increased blood flow from exercise enhances nutrient delivery to the muscles. The meal itself should ideally include a mix of proteins, carbohydrates, and healthy fats in the right proportions. For protein, you should aim for about 20-30 grams to aid muscle repair, with suitable options like grilled chicken breast, a scoop of whey protein in a smoothie, or a cup of Greek yogurt. Also include 40-60 grams of carbohydrates to replenish depleted glycogen, the main energy source for the muscles. Nutritious choices include a medium-sized sweet potato, a cup of cooked quinoa, or a banana. Additionally, aim for about 10-15 grams of healthy fats to support the production of hormones like testosterone and human growth hormone which play a role in muscle growth and recovery. Good sources of fats for optimal hormone function include avocado slices, a handful of almonds, and a tablespoon of flaxseeds.

Wellness Events


Attending wellness workshops, yoga retreats, and meditation sessions also aids muscle relaxation. These events often include sessions on deep stretching and controlled breathing which help release tension in overworked muscles. They also teach participants mindfulness techniques that encourage the body to relax which reduces physiological stress and leads to more effective muscle recovery.

Hip Thrusts across Age Groups


Hip thrusts can be beneficial for different age groups, including youth, adults, and seniors when adjusted for each.




For younger people under 18, the emphasis is on developing muscle coordination and control. This is because their nervous systems are still creating the pathways needed for synchronized muscle function. Hip thrusts are particularly beneficial in strengthening these neural pathways. As they require a concerted effort from multiple muscle groups, this challenges the nervous system to coordinate them. Responding to this challenge, in turn, strengthens the neural pathways that facilitate coordinated movements.


However, hip thrusts should be done without added weights by young people. During these formative years, the bones, muscles, and connective tissues are still developing and are more vulnerable to damage under physical stress. If youths engage in heavy lifting, they risk developing injuries or even long-term issues such as joint problems or disrupted growth patterns.




For persons aged 18 to 60, hip thrusts can be adjusted to incorporate added weights, such as barbells or dumbbells, as the bones and muscles have reached full development and can handle greater resistance. Nevertheless, lifestyle factors should also be considered when adding resistance. If your lifestyle is mostly sedentary, for example, it can lead to decreased muscle flexibility, particularly in the hips and lower back. Engaging in stretching and mobility exercises before hip thrusts is particularly important in this case, as it helps loosen the muscles and prepare the body for the exercise.


If your job involves physical labor, on the other hand, it can lead to muscle fatigue and microtears that need time to heal. Thus, you need to ensure adequate rest to allow your muscles to recover. You can do this by incorporating rest days into your routine and alternating between strength training and cardio to vary your workouts. This balanced routine ensures you are not overworking the same muscles but are engaging different ones.


High stress levels also impact your body’s ability to recover from workouts. Stress can elevate cortisol which leads the body to break down protein in muscles. Elevated cortisol also reduces the uptake of amino acids by the muscle cells which prevents effective protein synthesis. To counter this, incorporate stress management techniques such as yoga, meditation, or breathing exercises to reduce cortisol levels and aid muscle repair.


Additionally, if you are frequently under stress, consider opting for shorter, more frequent workout sessions. For example, instead of committing to long workout sessions a few times a week, try shorter 20-30 minute sessions more frequently. This adjustment helps prevent the added stress that longer sessions might cause.




For seniors, the main focus should not be on lifting heavy weights and building significant muscle mass due to the increased risk of injury. As people age, their bones tend to become more fragile and the tendons and ligaments lose elasticity. Given these physiological changes, seniors may want to use lighter weights like dumbbells or incorporate resistance bands for safer exercise intensity. Using these lighter options offers enough resistance to maintain muscle strength without overloading delicate tissues and joints.


Who Should Avoid Hip Thrusts


While hip thrusts are safe for most people, persons with certain conditions should approach them with caution or avoid them altogether. These include persons with lower back problems, hip or knee issues, abdominal hernias, and pregnant women. Specifically, those with existing lower back issues such as herniated discs or chronic lower back pain may find that added pressure on the lower spine exacerbates their condition. Additionally, those with hip injuries and conditions like hip labral tears and severe hip arthritis should avoid hip thrusts as they can lead to further injury.


People with knee problems, such as severe osteoarthritis or patellar tendinitis, should also be cautious. These conditions can cause pain, inflammation, and weakness in the muscles and tendons around the knee. As these areas are engaged to stabilize the body during hip thrusts, additional strain can worsen the condition.


Those with abdominal hernias should avoid hip thrusts as well because the exercise involves significant contraction of the abdominal muscles. This intense core activity can increase intra-abdominal pressure and cause further protrusion or tearing.


Lastly, pregnant women, particularly in the later stages of pregnancy, should exercise caution or avoid hip thrusts. The increased abdominal size and altered center of gravity can affect balance which can lead to instability and increase the risk of falls. Moreover, the natural loosening of the joints due to hormonal changes heightens the likelihood of discomfort and injury.


Wrapping Up


Every step, sprint, and jump depends on the strength of your glutes. Powerful glutes also support movements across a variety of sports, from sprinting and cycling to skiing and swimming. For both everyday fitness and competitive sports, hip thrusts are a go-to exercise to effectively build these muscles. But mastering hip thrusts takes more than just enthusiasm – it requires a sharp focus on technique and form. Beyond just the basics, learning about variations, safety tips, and the right way to recover can help you build stronger muscles without risking injury.




What is the difference between hip thrusts and glute bridges?


In hip thrusts, you lift your body from a seated position against a bench, and this allows you to push your hips higher. This increased movement puts pressure on the glute muscles and helps build greater strength and muscle size. In contrast, with glute bridges, you lie flat on the ground and lift your hips upward. This movement is less intense and focuses more on muscle activation and endurance which makes it suitable for beginners or as a warm-up exercise.


How are hip thrusts and squats different?


Hip thrusts focus primarily on the glutes. In contrast, squats are a compound movement that involves the hips and knees and works multiple muscle groups, including the quads, hamstrings, glutes, and lower back.


Hip thrusts or RDLs: which is better?


Choosing between hip thrusts and Romanian deadlifts (RDLs) depends on your fitness goals. Hip thrusts are ideal for building and strengthening the glute muscles. This increase in glute strength improves performance in activities that rely heavily on it, such as sprinting and jumping. Romanian deadlifts, on the other hand, target the posterior chain, which includes the hamstrings, glutes, and lower back. This exercise develops overall lower body strength and supports functional movements that involve lifting and bending, like picking up groceries and moving furniture.


How many reps of hip thrusts are optimal?


As a beginner, you might start with 8 to 12 reps to get accustomed to the movement and build initial strength without overloading your muscles. With experience, you can increase the number of reps to build endurance and aim for about 15 to 20 reps per set without weights.


Once you build strength, you can start incorporating weights. Begin with a moderate weight that you can handle comfortably for 8 to 12 reps. Over time, you can increase the weight while aiming to complete 6 to 10 repetitions per set.


Is it possible to grow your glutes with only hip thrusts?


Yes, you can effectively grow your glutes by focusing solely on hip thrusts. They allow for both heavy weights and high volume which are key factors for muscle growth. However, while hip thrusts can be the primary exercise for glute development, adding squats, deadlifts, and lunges can help target supporting muscle groups such as the hamstrings, quads, and core. Working out these muscles enhances overall body stability and strength, which in turn supports the glutes in performing their functions more effectively.


How can I modify hip thrusts if I have lower back pain?


If you have lower back pain but still want to perform hip thrusts, there are several modifications you can make to reduce strain and ensure a safer workout. First, you should tighten your core throughout the movement to provide additional support to your lower back. Next, you may want to reduce the range of motion; instead of lowering your hips all the way to the ground, stop halfway to avoid excessive strain. Additionally, focus on a slow, controlled pace rather than rapid movements to help prevent jerky motions that might aggravate back pain. If the discomfort persists, consider substituting hip thrusts with glute bridges which are performed on the floor and tend to be less intense on the lower back.


How can I adjust hip thrusts if I am dealing with neck pain?


If you have neck pain, you can modify hip thrusts to reduce discomfort while still targeting your glutes. First, ensure your neck is in a relaxed position and avoid extending or flexing, as this can place additional stress on it. Second, consider reducing the weight you lift to focus more on the form and less on the load. This can help prevent any strain from improper technique.


Additionally, you can strengthen your upper back and neck muscles with gentle, supportive exercises. Start with neck isometrics where you push your forehead against your hand while resisting with your neck muscles. Maintain this pressure for 10 seconds and perform the exercise five times. Follow up with shoulder blade squeezes where you draw your shoulder blades together and down, as if you are trying to pinch something between them. This reinforces the muscles that connect the neck to the upper back and enhances their ability to manage load, which reduces the likelihood of strain in the neck area. Lastly, chin tucks, where you pull your head back to create a double chin, help strengthen the neck and improve posture.


How can I modify hip thrusts if my knees hurt?


One effective method is to place a soft pad or cushion under your heels to absorb some of the pressure exerted on them. When you lift your hips upwards, your body weight shifts towards your feet and causes the heels to press harder into the ground. The force generated by them then travels up through your legs to your knees. On hard surfaces, this force is transmitted more intensely as these surfaces lack the elasticity to absorb shock. Adding a cushion under your heels can help absorb some of the impact and make the exercise more comfortable.